The Standard Bearers Close Ranks
Collaboration is bringing the education community closer to long-held dreams
of content portability and access to next-generation tools.
For most educators, the various
eLearning specifications and standards organizations seem far removed from the
classroom. Certainly, many have heard of IMS, OKI, and ADL SCORM. However, most
would have difficulty explaining how any of these key specifications might affect
their online teaching. The reality is that several groups are producing specifications
that will affect the way technology is used in online education.
Behind the scenes, there is a revolution going on in the way eLearning specifications
and standards are being developed. This is not a newly discovered way to provide
features for online education. Instead, it is the result of the increasing collaboration
and cooperation between key organizations to share the workload and build on
the accomplishments of others.
Among the five key organizations developing specifications and standards for
eLearning are: the IMS Global Learning Consortium (IMS), the Open Knowledge
Initiative (OKI), the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Co-Labs, the Schools
Interoperability Framework (SIF), and the IEEE Learning Technology Standards
Committee (IEEE LTSC). These five organizations represent the collaboration
occurring across the entire eLearning spectrum.
Each is structured as a vertical or a horizontal organization depending on
its mission and constituency. Vertical organizations are generally designed
to represent one online learning constituency. For example, OKI focuses on higher
education, ADL focuses on training, and SIF focuses mainly on K-12. The horizontal
organizations serve many constituencies and thus cut across the verticals. For
instance, IMS and the IEEE LTSC attempt to provide specifications and standards
that meet the needs of many vertical efforts.
When these vertical and horizontal organizations cooperate with each other,
they do so in many different configurations that ideally lead to more robust,
There are three main ways that collaborative efforts can be used in specification
development, says Ed Walker, chief executive officer of IMS. The first is for
an organization to find an existing specification to adopt. The second option
is to influence or modify an existing specification. And the final alternative
is for an organization to create its own specification with the help of other
groups. In all cases, collaboration is the key to a successful plan.
This three-tiered model is useful in examining eLearning collaborations from
the perspective of each partner.
One example involves the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) co-laboratory
initiative initiated in 1997 by the Department of Defense to "foster platform-neutral,
interoperable, reusable educational content at the object level." Since then,
ADL participation has expanded significantly to include academia, government,
and industry on a global level. The reference model for this project is called
the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM).
SCORM is a diverse family of specifications originally developed by organizations
worldwide, including IMS, the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC), IEEE LTSC,
Dublin Core, and others. The SCORM model is an evolving one, with each of the
organizations contributing pieces of the puzzle depending on its focus.
SCORM is a good example of both the first and second type of collaboration
opportunity. Whenever possible, SCORM adopts existing specifications that meet
their design blueprint, such as using the "runtime" design from the AICC as
When SCORM updated to Release 1.1, it needed a different kind of collaboration
to fulfill its objectives. In order to address deficiencies in content structure,
SCORM examined IMS's efforts to develop the IMS Content Packaging specification.
The IMS specification was designed to meet the needs of the broad IMS community,
but SCORM found that the specification could also address its needs. Following
the approval of the specification by the IMS community, SCORM added this specification
to SCORM 1.2.
Paul Jesukiewicz of the ADL believes the good working relationships the organization
has formed during collaborations has allowed SCORM to rely on major partners
to produce the specifications of SCORM without duplication of effort.
A second example involves the Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF). SIF
is an initiative to develop open specifications for K-12 instructional and administrative
applications. SIF's goal is to provide a technical framework that will enable
diverse applications to interact and share data seamlessly. More than 100 organizations
are members, including vendors and software providers, school systems, educational
organizations, and state education departments.
In its current development road map, SIF is interested in adding assessment
to its suite of specifications. SIF has already done significant preliminary
work on defining the needs of its constituents. To translate these into specifications,
SIF surveyed the specification landscape, and found IMS to have significant
experience in addressing that target.
SIF examined the IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) specification
to determine its possible applicability to SIF's preliminary work. SIF found
the QTI specification to be "an expansive specification with lots of potentialities,"
according to SIF Director Tim Magner. From a subset of the QTI specification,
SIF then created a product that meets the vertical needs of the K-12 community.
The collaboration shortened development time significantly.
This SIF-IMS collaboration is a good example of the first type of collaboration
opportunity: namely, adopting an existing specification to meet the needs of
a particular constituency.
The third type of opportunity for collaboration can be seen in IMS. As an early
participant in the development of eLearning specifications, IMS was developing
specifications during the pre-collaboration period. Today, IMS is cited as a
leader in promoting cooperation and collaboration between the various eLearning
specification groups, but it still takes the lead in developing new specifications.
For instance, when the need arose for a specification to address assessment,
IMS surveyed the landscape to find a solution to adopt. Finding none, they set
about developing the QTI specification. Rather than operating in a vacuum, IMS
actively sought the input and participation of the higher education, training,
and government sectors, as well as assessment experts to develop the specification.
The result was a QTI specification that drew attention from a broad cross section
of the eLearning community. In response to comments from organizations such
as ADL SCORM and SIF, the specification was revised and generalized to meet
the needs of a wide range of verticals, including higher education, training,
K-12, and global markets.
As the number of collaborative organizations and projects has increased, other
models of cooperation have emerged. One of the most important models is the
collaboration of shared activities, as illustrated by the Open Knowledge Initiative
Focusing on Function
OKI is defining open architectural specifications to support the development
of educational software and focusing on the architecture and interactions between
modules, programs, and systems within and across institutions. Its goal is to
develop a platform for building both traditional and innovative educational
applications while helping institutions leverage existing infrastructure. Specifically,
OKI efforts include developing the means to exchange educational content or
student information and to synchronize information across the educational community.
Another goal is how to share applications and services in disparate environments.
IMS is a primary collaborator with OKI in these efforts. "IMS is the place
to be ... especially for data exchange and definitions specifications," says
Jeffrey Merriman, OKI's project leader. Merriman describes the collaboration
this way: IMS provides the nouns while OKI focuses on the verbs in the form
of application integration. In general, OKI is providing the functional or behavioral
components while IMS is providing the data.
In this collaboration, OKI is focusing on the places where data is to be stored,
leaving the actual data model to projects like IMS. For example, the OKI digital
asset model points to content and a variety of metadata formats. Merriman describes
OKI work with ADL and IMS as, "not on orthogonal problems but rather exploring
the other side of the coin."
OKI is also feeding into IMS the new methodology for next-generation applications.
As OKI services mature, OKI plans to focus future efforts into IMS, with the
knowledge that IMS can take OKI frameworks and release and maintain specifications.
ADL and IMS are also involved in multiple back-and-forth collaborations. While
ADL is an active participant in IMS specification activities in order to address
the specific needs of SCORM, it also gives back to IMS. After an IMS specification
is released, ADL becomes an important test bed for the IMS specifications included
in SCORM. Then ADL acts as a neutral party and safe haven where vendors can
test implementations of various SCORM-adopted specifications. For IMS, this
provides broad validation and implementation of the specifications across the
From Specification to Standard
The IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee (IEEE LTSC) represents another
type of collaboration. By its nature IEEE LTSC falls at the end of the specification-to-standards
continuum. Traditionally, standards organizations such as the IEEE have taken
existing specifications and massaged them until there is a consensus within
the organization. Only then is the standard approved.
For a few years, the IEEE LTSC took a different approach by forming working
groups to develop standards. This was done in much the same way specification
efforts like IMS or the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative have done before, submitting
specifications to IEEE for the final standards process. One goal of the IEEE's
change in approach was to shorten the time required for finalizing a standard.
Recently, the IEEE LTSC has scaled back its internal work group specification
efforts in favor of promoting more involvement between IEEE LTSC and organizations
like IMS and ADL. Collaborations include the co-location of meetings to promote
more opportunities for discussions among the various groups. The IEEE LTSC also
has begun to assemble developments in a particular learning technology area
and is passing this information to various specification groups. The hope is
that, with additional early input and collaboration, the specification efforts
will provide the IEEE LTSC with specifications that accommodate the wide-ranging
needs of its participants.
In general, these collaborative efforts have led to more productive efforts
and to the development of new relationships. As a result of its cooperative
efforts with IMS, SIF has an increasing awareness of other organizations that
collaborate under the IMS umbrella.
For example, the ADL worked with SIF during SIF's profiling of the QTI specification.
Similarly, SIF has initiated limited involvement and dialogues with OKI.
Tim Magner of SIF considers ADL and OKI to be "separate verticals with different
requirements." However, he d'es see a time when the verticals will come closer
together and bilateral projects might be possible. Magner believes that, "awareness
of each other in a positive way is a great opportunity for the future. We may
be alphabet soup in terms of identity, but we are all in the same bowl."
So what d'es all this collaboration mean for faculty members using technology
to teach their classes? The sooner usable specifications are developed, the
easier it will be for educators to take advantage of technological advances
and produce more effective online pedagogies. Collaboration is bringing the
educational community closer to long-held dreams—such as content portability—and
is accelerating access to the next generation of tools to support eLearning.
Alphabet Soup: eLearning Standards Organizations
Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative
The ADL Initiative, sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense,
is a collaboration between government, industry, and the education community.
Its goal is to establish a distributed learning environment that permits
the interoperability of learning tools and course content among government
agencies, schools, and businesses. To do this, the organization is developing
tools, specifications, guidelines, policies, and prototypes that are:
reusable; accessible from multiple remote locations; adaptable by multiple
organizations; affordable through the reduction of inefficiency; and interoperable
among operating systems, tools, and platforms.
IMS Global Learning Consortium Inc.
IMS began as a project of EDUCAUSE to provide open market-based standards
for learning technology, particularly specifications for content metadata.
Such standards would facilitate locating and using educational content,
tracking learner progress, reporting learner performance, and exchanging
student records between administrative systems. IMS's work includes areas
such as content packaging, the Learner Information Package (LIP), the
enterprise information model, and others. IMS proposed and collaborated
with the IEEE to propose metadata specifications that later became a draft
for the Learning Objects Metadata specification.
Open Knowledge Initiative (OKI)
The OKI, started at MIT with funding through an Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
grant, is focusing on defining open architectural specifications to support
the development of educational software. Its architecture is intended
to provide a modular, extensible platform for building educational applications
and helping universities leverage their existing infrastructure. The organization
wants to create an application programming interface (API) specification
of the OKI that will be published for use by the developer community.
This specification will include the common services and components of
the OKI architecture. MIT, Stanford, and the University of Michigan have
agreed to adapt their current learning management systems to the OKI architecture.
Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF)
SIF is an industry initiative to develop an open specification for ensuring
that K-12 instructional and administrative software applications work
together effectively. SIF is not a product, but an industry-supported
technical blueprint for K-12 software that will enable diverse applications
to interact and share data seamlessly. SIF is backed by more than 120
education technology providers.
Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)
When specifications become stable, the ADL incorporates them into a SCORM
release. In this way SCORM is viewed as an integrative model that relies
on and extends specifications from other groups. SCORM is a collection
of specifications designed to enable interoperability, accessibility,
and reusability of Web-based learning content. SCORM covers learning management
systems, content authoring tool vendors, instructional designers, content
developers, and training providers.