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Robo-Forklift Prototyped at MIT

Researchers in MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) are working on a better way to handle supplies in a war zone: a semi-autonomous forklift that can be directed by people safely away from the dangers of the site.

Currently, when supplies arrive at military outposts in war zones such as Iraq, people driving forklifts unload the pallets and put them into storage, and later load them onto trucks to take the material to where it's needed.

When completed, the new robotic device will provide a safer way to handle pallet-loaded supplies of everything from truck tires to water containers and construction materials, said Matt Walter, a CSAIL researcher with a lead role in the project. The device is designed to operate outdoors on uneven terrain such as gravel or packed earth.

In Iraq, it has not been uncommon for workers to "have to abandon the forklift three or four times a day because they come under fire," Walter says. "A lot of the work could be automated," thus alleviating people's exposure to danger, "but it's a very difficult task."

The forklift is designed to operate autonomously with high-level direction from a human supervisor who could be physically nearby or ensconced in a remote bunker. In an initial training phase, the forklift learns the basic layout of the storage depot facility, such as where the reception area is, where incoming supply trucks arrive with a load of pallets ready to be stored, and where the storage areas are for those pallets to be deposited. The forklift can then be commanded to transport pallets from one place to another within the depot.

Determining what pallets to pick up and where they need to go requires guidance from a human supervisor. The supervisor's tablet computer, wirelessly linked to the forklift, displays the view from the forklift's forward-looking video camera.

Using stylus gestures on the image, the supervisor might indicate the truck to be unloaded, the pallet to be engaged next, and where on the pallet to insert the forklift tines. The supervisor also speaks to the tablet, indicating the desired destination of the target pallet.

If there's ever a problem with the automated system, the machine reverts to a conventional manned forklift whenever someone climbs into the operator's cabin.

In developing the robotic system, the CSAIL researchers have made use of computer code developed for other projects, including the autonomous vehicle MIT entered in the 2007 DARPA Grand Challenge auto race, in which unmanned cars navigated roads without human intervention, said Seth Teller, professor of computer science and engineering and project lead.

Among the tasks the robot must carry out automatically is avoiding unexpected obstacles, especially people who may be walking around in the area. That turned out to be less of a challenge than expected: "It is possible to detect moving people using laser range scanners," Walter said. "Things get much harder if people are trying to trick the system by hiding or standing very still."

The forklift project has involved faculty, staff, and students from MIT, as well as Draper Laboratory, and BAE Systems. Funding was provided by the US Army Logistics Innovation Agency.

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