Inclusion for Special Populations
What is inclusion? Webster's defines inclusion as the "act of including and
the state of being included." Everyone is, therefore, included regardless
of race, color, creed, or physical disabilities. CoVal School District, in New
Hampshire, defines inclusion as "the integration of students with special
educational needs into the regular educational setting." WEAC gives a fuller
explanation of inclusion, "a term which expresses commitment to educate each
child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she
would otherwise attend. It involves bringing the support services to the child
(rather than moving the child to the services) and requires only that the child
will benefit from being in the class (rather than having to keep up with the other
students). Proponents of inclusion generally favor newer forms of education service
One of the newest forms of educational delivery for everyone is the growing
number of online classes offered. Many colleges and universities are adding
more online classes to their curriculum in addition to keeping the traditional
Assistive Technologies & Its Advantages
To accommodate the hearing and visually impaired, different types of assistive
equipment are needed to upgrade computers in order to meet the specific needs
of the disabled users.
For blind users, considerations include a voice synthesizer that translates
digital text from the screen into a synthesized voice. A software product called
the screen reader allows the information to be "read" from the screen.
The user uses a special Braille computer with Braille keyboard, but no screen,
in order to respond. This assistive technology allows a blind student to participate
actively in an online environment because the student can "converse"
with his classmates without the presence of a human reader.
With low vision users, a screen enlarger is necessary to upgrade text or image
up to 25 times the image/text. Some considerations for the web designer are
good color contrast in text and background, simple and consistent layout, and
that the links and text are clearly marked.
Some users are hearing impaired. At first, it may appear that there are no
special considerations because they can read from the screen. However, more
and more materials presented in multimedia form are accompanied with an audiovisual
component. For that reason, videos with subtitles or closed captions are necessary
to enable the deaf user to complete the course in its entirety. Hearing-impaired
students feel a great sense of pride that they can finally "talk"
to a teacher without a human intermediary. They also felt less hindered because
their disability is not visible to anyone, particularly her classmates. The
majority of deaf students choose not to reveal their disability because they
want so much to be treated equal to a "hearing" student.
Physically disabled users have mobility issues. Certain parts of their body
suffer from pain to paralysis. For these users, there are many special types
of assistive devices. A few common items include touch screens, larger mice,
joysticks, trackball switchboxes, voice input boxes, etc.
For medically fragile users who are unable to leave the house for various reasons
due to a tethered breathing apparatus, weak immune system, etc., the online
environment allows them to be a part of a learning community and to be in touch
with other people. This access will allow them to learn while convalescing.
Equipment, supplies, and resources for the blind and deaf may be quite expensive
($200 - $12,000) depending on each user's needs. Listed below are a few sites
with hardware information and services:
Also of interest may be the Spring 2004 issue of Net Connect linking librarians,
educators and the internet. This magazine is a supplement to Library Journal.
This particular issue is devoted entirely to adaptive technologies focusing
on new ways for access and all the latest hardware and software.
Online classes are especially attractive to the disabled population. There are
many reasons why learning online from the comfort of one's home is preferable.
Many do not have reliable transportation to shuttle them to and from school.
Some are homebound and the internet and online courses allow them to be a part
of the community at large. They are equipped with custom upgraded computers
to meet their special needs which are not likely accessible in a college and/or
public library. They can interact directly with their classmates rather than
working with a third party, usually an interpreter or a reader. There is also
a comfort zone as stated by a user. "Online, no one knows I'm disabled.
In this environment, we don't recognize people by race or disability, or how
they look - we only see people for their idea." Finally, the flexibility
of being able to study on one's own time in order to accommodate one's medical
needs is a bonus.
Distance education via computer conferencing and email has lessened communication
barriers for persons with physical disabilities. It has allowed blind and deaf
students to "communicate" directly with their instructors and classmates
without intermediaries. Providing inclusion to an online learning community
means better accessibility to more materials available in Braille and in closed
captioned formats. Inclusion means "inviting disabled students who have
traditionally been locked out to "come in"." When inclusion is
practiced, it provides a sense of self-reliance, self confidence, and the pride
of independence to this special population. Distance learning technology is
a win-win situation for everyone.
Duggan, D (1999) Online Classes Expand Access [Electronic version]
Retrieved May 5, 2004 from http://www.statenews.com/tech/990421/virtualu.html
Keyes, M. (1988) Using Distance Education Technologies to Overcome
Physical Disabilities [Electronic version] Retrieved April 28, 2004
Lance, G.D. (2002) Distance Learning and Disability: A View From the
Instructor's Side of the Virtual Lectern. Retrieved April 28, 2004
Microsoft. (2004) Assistive Technology: Types of Assistive Technology
Products. Retrieved April 29, 2004 from
Stout, K.S. (2001) Special Education Inclusion. Retrieved April 28,
2004 from http://www.weac.org/resource/june96/speced.htm
Tompkins, R. & Deloney, P. (1995) Inclusion: the Pros and Cons.
[Electronic version] Issues……About Change. Retrieved April 29,
2004 from http://www.sedl.org/change/issues/issues43.html
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